Sunday, May 29, 2011

Session Hijacking Explained



With the emerging fields in e-commerce, financial and identity information are at a
higher risk of being stolen. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a common cum
valiant security threat to which most systems are prone to i.e. Session Hijacking.
Sensitive user information are constantly transported between sessions after
authentication and hackers are putting their best efforts to steal them .In this paper I will
discuss mechanics of the act of session hijacking in TCP and UDP sessions i.e. hijacking
at the network level and at Application levels i.e. hijacking HTTP sessions.


TCP session Hijacks



TCP hijacks are meant to intercept the already established TCP sessions between any two
communicating parties and than pretending to be one of them, finally redirecting the TCP
traffic to it by injecting spoofed IP packets so that your commands are processed on
behalf of the authenticated host of the session. It desynchronizes the session between the
actual communicating parties and by intruding itself in between. As authentication is only
required at the time of establishing connection , an already established connection can be
easily stolen without going through any sort of authentication or security measures
concerned. TCP session hijacks can be implemented in two different ways: Middle Man
Attack (suggested by Lam, LeBlanc, and Smith) and the Blind attack. Before moving
further there is need to understand IP spoofing which is discussed in the next subsection.


IP Spoofing: Assuming the identity


Spoofing is pretending to be someone else. This is a technique used to gain unauthorized
access to the computer with an IP address of a trusted host. The trusted host in case of
session hijacking is the client with whose IP address we will spoof our packets so that our
packets will become acceptable to the server maintaining the session with the client. In
implementing this technique session hijacker has to obtain the IP address of the client and

inject his own packets spoofed with the IP address of client into the TCP session, so as to
fool the server that it is communicating with the victim i.e. the original host.
What remains untouched is how to alter the sequence and the acknowledgement
numbers of the spoofed packets which the server is expecting from the client. Once it is
altered, hijacker injects its own forged packet in the established session before the client
can respond , ultimately desynchronizing the original session , because now our server
will expect a different sequence number , so the original packet will be trashed. Based
on the anticipation of sequence numbers there are two types of TCP hijacking: Man in
the Middle and Blind hijacking.


Man in the Middle attack using Packet Sniffers


This technique involves using a packet sniffer to intercept the communication between
client and the server. Packet sniffer comes in two categories: Active and Passive sniffers.
Passive sniffers monitors and sniffs packet from a network having same collision
domain
i.e. network with a hub, as all packets are broadcasted on each port of hub. Active sniffers
works with Switched LAN network by ARP spoofing (For more information on Active
Sniffers refer Ethical Hacking and Countermeasures EC Council Exam 312 50 (OSB-
2004)).Once the hijacker reads the TCP header, he can know the sequence number
expected by the server , the acknowledgement number, the ports and the protocol
numbers ; so that hijacker can forge the packet and send it to the server before the client
does so.
Another way of doing so is to change the default gateway of the client’s
machine so that it will route its packets via the hijacker’s machine. This can be done by
ARP spoofing (i.e. by sending malicious ARP packets mapping its MAC address to the
default gateways address so as to update the ARP cache on the client , to redirect the
traffic to hijacker).


Blind Attack


If you are not able to sniff the packets and guess the correct sequence number expected
by server, you have to implement “Blind Session Hijacking”. You have to brute force 4
billion combinations of sequence number which will be an unreliable task.


UDP Session Hijacking


Since UDP does not use packet sequencing and synchronizing; it is easier than TCP to
hijack UDP session. The hijacker has simply to forge a server reply to a client UDP
request before the server can respond. If sniffing is used than it will be easier to control
the traffic generating from the side of the server and thus restricting server’s reply to the
client in the first place.


Hijacking Application Levels


At this level a hijacker can not only hijack already existing sessions but can also create
new sessions from the stolen data.


HTTP Session Hijack



Hijacking HTTP sessions involves obtaining Session ID’s for the sessions, which is the
only unique identifier of the HTTP session. Session ID’s can be found at three places
1. 1. In the URL received by the browser for the HTTP GET request.
2. 2. With cookies which will be stored in clients computer.
3. 3. Within the form fields.




Obtaining Session ID’s


One way to obtain the Session ID is by sniffing, which is same as the Man in middle
attack. Cookies and URL’s can be sniffed from the packets and if unencrypted can
provide critical user logon information.
Another way is by Brute Forcing the Session ID’s which involves trying a set of session
id’s based on some pattern. Brute forcing is a time consuming task but worked on some
algorithm can produce results rather quickly.



Countermeasures


To defend your network with session hijacking, a defender has to implement
both security measures at Application level and Network level. Network level hijacks
can be prevented by Ciphering the packets so that the hijacker cannot decipher the
packet headers, to obtain any information which will aid in spoofing. This encryption
can be provided by using protocols such as IPSEC ,SSL, SSH etc. Internet security
protocol (IPSEC) has the ability to encrypt the packet on some shared key between the
two parties involved in communication. IPsec runs in two modes: Transport and Tunnel.
In Transport Mode only the data sent in the packet is encrypted while in Tunnel Mode
both packet headers and data are encrypted, so it is more restrictive.
To prevent your Application session to be hijacked it is recommended to
use Strong Session ID’s so that they cannot be hijacked or deciphered at any cost.
SSL (Secure Socket layer) and SSH (Secure Shell) also provides strong encryption
using SSL certificates so that session cannot be hijacked, but tools such as Cain &
Bell can spoof the SSL certificates and decipher everything! Expiring sessions after a
definite period of time requires re-authentication which will futile the hacker’s tricks.


DARKLORD!!



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